What are the Economic Effects of Ending DACA?
Immigration, in recent years, has been a hot-button topic in American politics.
Most recently, the debate has centered around DACA, or Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. The three-day government shutdown in January was instigated by Democrats to push for a vote in the Senate on this issue. This program, instituted by the Obama administration, gives legal status to people who were brought into the United States illegally as children. Every two years, these people can apply for a temporary work visa. This visa gives them deportation relief and allows them to work legally in the country. This group is often referred to as “Dreamers."
Because this program was created through an executive order, the president has full authority to revoke it at any time. In September 2017, the Trump administration announced that it would phase out the DACA program with a six-month delay. Meaning, the deadline for Congress to act would fall on March 5, 2018. This deadline has pushed Democrats to fight for legislation that would create a program to replace DACA.
After the government shutdown, Senate Republicans and Democrats have an agreement to debate and vote on this issue February 8. However, there are still questions of whether the vote will actually happen and what exactly they would be voting on. Or even if the same bill could pass the House afterward as well as whether Trump will sign it.
There are a lot of things up in the air when it comes to DACA. With indecision on this issue from Congress, it looks more certain that the program will be ended completely. This would leave about 690,000 immigrants to face deportation when the program shuts down. If these people were forced to leave the country or did so voluntarily, what would be the possible economic effects?
The majority of DACA recipients are students. All of those covered by the program must be enrolled in school, or have a high school degree or an equivalent. Seventeen percent are working toward an advanced degree. As they complete their education, this group will look more like the highly skilled individuals with Bachelor's or Master's degrees who receive H-1B visas. Dreamers are also more likely to be employed in higher-skilled jobs than immigrants who are residing in the country illegally.
But not all enrolled in DACA are students. About 55 percent are working in some capacity in a variety of service and professional jobs. Many work in retail, food services, or hospitality. Some are enlisted in the military. But many still are business managers, social workers, teachers, and health care providers.
About 5,400 DACA recipients are practicing physicians. Without the program, these doctors will likely be forced to leave the country. According to the Assocation of American Medical Colleges, the shortage is expected to increase from 40,800 and 104,900 physicians by 2030. With the removal of DACA, the shortage could potentially worsen, especially in rural areas.
Additionally, around 20,000 enrolled in DACA are currently working as teachers nationwide. Most of them are in California and Texas. If the program is ended, all of these teachers would potentially be lost. This situation could leave many schools in limbo. Most Dreamers are also fluent in Spanish, an increasingly valuable skill in education and other fields.
That's not even counting other economic impacts. All of the DACA recipients are spending money and participating in the economy. They buy groceries, pay rent, and own cars and fill up their tanks. Once their DACA status lapses, they could potentially lose their jobs. This loss of income would prevent them from participating in the economy in the same way. This participation even includes the $495 application fee to enroll or renew their status every two years. Losing thousands of people freely participating in the U.S. economy will have an impact, especially in states where most Dreamers are settled. Over the next ten years, projections range from $200 billion to more than $400 billion in economic growth that could be lost if the DACA program were ended.
- Trump Ends DACA, Calls On Congress To Act : NPR ›
- DACA alive, barely, a year after Trump ended it - CNNPolitics ›
- It's time to end DACA – It's unconstitutional unless approved by ... ›
- What is DACA and why is it ending? - CNNPolitics ›
- DACA: Experts Predict Big Economic Consequences of Rescinding ... ›
- DACA Recipients' Economic and Educational Gains Continue to Grow ›
- DACA: Economic Cost of Deporting Undocumented Immigrants ... ›
- Economic Effects of DACA Are $460 Billion Per Year | Observer ›
- DACA deportations could cost US economy more than $400 billion ›
- Rescinding DACA Will Cost the US Economy $200 Billion ›
Looking for a job? In addition to encountering those annoying never-ending job interviews you may find yourself face-to-face with an artificial intelligence bot.
Companies worldwide increasingly use artificial intelligence tools and analytics in employment decision-making – from parsing through resumes and screening candidates to automated assessments and digital interviews. But recent studies claim that AI does more harm than good.
While AI screening tools were developed to save companies time and money, they’ve been criticized for placing women and people of color at a disadvantage. The problem is that many companies lack appreciable diversity in their data set, making it impossible for an algorithm to know how people from underrepresented groups have performed in the past. As a result, the algorithm will be biased toward the data available and compare future candidates to that archetype.
The City’s Automated Employment Decision Tools (AEDT) law is designed to offset the potential misuse of AI and protect job candidates against discrimination. It was enforced on July 5th, 2023 in New York City - with other cities and states expected to gradually follow suit. Employers must now inform applicants when and how they encounter AI. Furthermore, companies have to commission a third-party audit of the AI software used, and publish a summary of the results to prove that their systems aren’t racist or sexist. Job applicants are able to request information regarding what data is collected and analyzed by the AI. Violations of the law can result in fines of up to $1,500.
Replacing Human Hiring Decisions
However, should a job applicant want to opt-out of such impersonal judgement by a bot, the new law's scope is quite limited.
While the law specifies that instructions for requesting an alternative selection process must be included in the AI screening disclosure, companies aren't actually required to use other screening methods. Not to mention that the law only applies to AI in hiring and not any other employment decisions. It also wouldn't apply if the AI, for example, flags candidates with relevant experience, but a human then reviews all applications, making the ultimate hiring decision.
Some civil rights advocates and public interest groups argue that the law isn’t extensive enough and that it’s even unenforceable. On the other hand, businesses say that it’s impractical, costly, and burdensome, and that independent audits aren’t feasible.
Responsible use of AI in hiring
Although this law may be a good first attempt to assign more regulatory guardrails around AI, it remains to be seen if it ensures the responsible use of AI in hiring processes. At the end of the day, perhaps recruiting talent should remain a human-made decision.
The good news is that AI can help companies without harming potential job candidates in many ways – such as connecting new employees with internal organizational information and company benefits during onboarding. Or helping employees to do their jobs more effectively rather than replacing them.
There’s all this talk about solo travel. And for good reason — no wasting precious time waiting for others to get their act together, take the plans out of the group chat and actually buy the tickets. Going solo, you can be spontaneous. You can plan your trips according to your precise tastes. You can hop on any flight and fly awayyyyyy.
But what if each time you flew you’d get a free ticket? That’s what you get with the Southwest Companion Pass.
Award status, upgrades, lounge access — there are many perks in the frequent flier game. But one of the coveted holy grails is the Southwest Companion Pass.
What is the Southwest Companion Pass?
The Companion Pass is part of Southwest’s Rapid Rewards program. You get to choose one person to be your “companion,” and they fly with you for free (plus some taxes and fees) on every flight. That’s right. Two for the price of one. That’s half off each ticket if you split it! Whether you’re flying with a partner, family member, friend, or anyone else, they can tag along for free.
And it gets better: once you earn the pass, you can reap the rewards for that full calendar year … AND the next. That’s why people go mad trying to earn a companion pass during the early months of the year. The sooner you qualify, the longer you can use it.
There are also no blackout dates. There are no limits. And if you didn’t purchase the ticket (think: work travel, your companion, or a generous benefactor), there are no restrictions! As long as you’re the one on the plane, your companion can also … be on the plane.
You can also switch out your designated companion 3x a year. So, no need to stay in a relationship simply to get the most out of your companion pass! Ghost and fly away — with a whole new companion!
If this sounds too good to be true — it’s not. But there is one small catch. It’s kinda tough to earn this mega reward.
How to qualify for the Southwest Companion Pass?
You can qualify for the pass in one of two ways:
- Fly 100 qualifying one-way flights
- Earn 135,000 qualifying points in a calendar year.
Clearly, this is no small feat — especially if you’re trying to qualify ASAP.
So how do you actually earn the Southwest Companion Pass?
Don’t worry, there’s a path to earning this amazing reward without climbing on 100 flights or spending an exorbitant amount of money.
Earning 135K reward points may seem completely impossible, but it’s easier than it sounds. Simply sign up for a Southwest Credit Card and turn those spending habits into a rapid rewards account. Through the Rewards Priority Credit Card, earn points when using local transit and commuting, plus score major points and miles whenever you spend.
Stay with me here. This is not some scheme to get you into credit card debt. Many airline cards come with potential savings, giantic rewards, awarding you points, and cashback with every purchase you make that can be redeemed for travel. And often they can come with passive sign-up bonuses. If you spend a specific amount of money within a certain timeframe of opening the card, you can be in for a windfall of points.
Now that’s where the companion pass comes in:
- Southwest Rapid Rewards Premier
- Southwest Rapid Rewards Plus Credit Card
- Southwest Priority Credit Card
- Southwest Rapid Rewards Premier Business Credit Card
- Southwest Performance Business Credit Card
Southwest has three personal cards and a business card. Each of these cards offers rewards between 30K-80K points. In the past, people could open two cards and get a bonus that granted enough points to almost meet the minimum. However, with new restrictions on personal cards, you can only get one bonus every 24 months. Boo!
However, this doesn’t apply to business cards. If you’re eligible, have good credit, and not likely to spiral into insane credit card debt, you can open a business card and a personal card, and accrue 100K+ points. The Rapid Rewards Priority Credit Card will get you points after you spend money in no time.
Now to earn the rest of them.
The secret to gaining these credit card points is to plan your card sign-ups around big purchases. Just before a recent move, I opened a card . . . and the rewards came rolling in — a small balm to ease the pain of how exorbitant moving can be.
Put everyday spend — especially big purchases or bulk items — on your Southwest credit card and watch your award points quickly add up. Typically, you earn 1 point per $1 spent on your Southwest card and 2 points per $1 on actual Southwest purchases.
But there are other ways to earn points, including:
- Flying Southwest: Booking travel on Southwest earns more points. The cost of this travel will be worth it with your companion pass
- Shopping from Rapid Rewards Partners: Purchases with Southwest’s “Home & Lifestyle” and “Shop and Dine” Partners also earn Companion Pass qualifying points. While you shouldn’t make gratuitous purchases, browse Southwest’s partners to see if you could earn extra points for items you'd be purchasing anyway. All this, simply from enrolling in their Dining Program and shopping with their partners.
So there you have it! And since it’s almost Spring, get to earning and soon you’ll be flying two for the price of one!